WordPress 3.4 introduced the Theme Customizer API. An excellent way to include customization options into a theme build.
These features are not well documented on the WordPress.org Codex site, but there are several pages online that dig a bit deeper into the options and inner working of the Theme Customizer API.
This is a great alternative to having to build a full options admin menu page. As the Theme Customizer is already in WordPress and does offer several input formats: text, textarea, checkbox, radio, colour selector and image uploader.